As he has noted in another passage at the beginning of the Futuhat (I 59), “Neither this book nor my other books have been composed in the manner of ordinary books, and I do not write in the way authors normally do.” Instead, he affirms more explicitly in a famous later passage (II 456), “I swear by God, I have not written a single letter of this book that was not in accordance with a divine ‘dictation’ [imlâ’ ilâhî], a spiritual inbreathing and a ‘casting by God’ [ilqâ’ rabbânî] in my heart!” Perhaps just as important, Ibn ‘Arabî’s remarks suggest the powerful and essentially unique and inimitable ways in which his distinctive language and rhetoric in this work so closely parallels the deeper structures of the Qur’an. At the time of his death, Ibn ‘Arabî himself was virtually unknown, in any wider public sense, in that Mongol/Crusader period when Islamic public authority almost vanished for some decades from all but a handful of Arab cities (and permanently from most of his native Andalusia). The book contains autobiographical elements: encounters, events, and spiritual illuminations. The Introduction to this book is finished. [30] See the detailed discussion of the first thirteen chapters of this Section in M. Chodkiewicz’s original Introduction to the Sindbad anthology (to be included in the forthcoming translation of the French sections of that book). [4], Women are prominently featured in the book, particularly in Chapter 178 on love. Ibn Arabi and His Interpreters — Introduction: Ibn Arabi and His Interpreters — Grouping II: Ibn Arabi and His Interpreters — Grouping III: Ibn Arabi and His Interpreters — Grouping IV. Ibn ʿArabī (Arabic: ابن عربي‎) (July 28, 1165 – November 10, 1240) was an Arab Andalusian Sufi mystic and philosopher. [13]. Because of the advanced nature of his teachings he has been known for 800 years as [22] With the possible exception of his most explicitly “practical” passages on spiritual practice and discernment, many of them translated in our forthcoming book on this subject (see “Further Readings”). [38] Because both works are so highly allusive, personal, poetic, and so deeply rooted in very personal readings of difficult passages from Ibn ‘Arabî, the Qur’an and many other Islamic classics, they should certainly be read in the original if at all possible. These include the translations of the eschatological chapters 59 – 65 and 271 (plus related passages from other chapters), already promised in the original notes to this book (Ibn ‘Arabî’s “Divine Comedy”: An Introduction to Islamic Eschatology); The Traveler and the Way: “Wandering” and the Spiritual Journey (a translation and commentary on the Risâlat al-Isfâr, plus several chapters on the same theme from the Futuhat); and at least two volumes of thematic explorations of Ibn ‘Arabî’s treatment of spiritual topics in the Futûhât, accompanied by full translations of key corresponding chapters. A second volume consists of the French parts of that work, translated into English (2004). [12] Despite the multitude of his later learned and artistic followers and interpreters, no one has really attempted any sort of detailed imitation of that distinctive Arabic literary style, which remains as unique, in its own way, as the equally inimitable Qur’an-inspired structures of Rumi and Hafez. These ontological and cosmological dimensions of Ibn ‘Arabî’s writing are the particular focus of a number of the extensive translations by W. Chittick cited in the “Further Reading” section. [18] Allusion to the Prophet’s prayer, “O my God, cause me to see things as they really are,” and to his prayer that Ibn ‘Arabî cites even more frequently, “O my Lord, increase me in knowing [of you]” – rabbî zidnî ‘ilman. The Meccan surahs are, according to the timing and contextual background of supposed revelation (asbāb al-nuzūl), the chronologically earlier chapters (suwar, singular sūrah) of the Qur'an.The traditional chronological order attributed to Ibn Abbās became widely accepted following its adoption by the 1924 Egyptian standard edition. The main. Read 2 reviews from the world's largest community for readers. [11]. "The continuation of our acclaimed English translation of Les Iluminations de la Meque. For the novice in this field, the English translation of T. Burckhardt’s original French version of a few key selected chapters of the Fusûs, The Wisdom of the Prophets (Oxford, Beshara, 1975) is considerably more approachable than R. Austin’s complete translation, Ibn al ‘Arabî: The Bezels of Wisdom (New York, Paulist Press, 1980) which has long, helpful prefaces to each chapter. [6], The Illuminations are a classic of Sufism, theology and Islamic philosophy. --Publisher's website. In particular, readers approaching the Meccan Revelations after having studied Ibn ‘Arabî’s Bezels of Wisdom (Fusûs al-Hikam) and the many traditions of later Islamic (and more recent Western) commentary on them, as we once did, will immediately feel that they are discovering a new continent. (One might cite here the pioneering efforts of Professor Paul Fenton regarding Jewish spiritual and religious encounters in Ottoman contexts at that time.). The Meccan Revelations Volume OneEdited by Michel ChodkiewiczTranslated by William C. Chittick and James W. MorrisThe luminous writings of Muhyiddin Ibn al-Arabi weave a vast mystic theology emerging from his own consummate spiritual realization. Most of the many selections from this chapter included in this anthology were drawn from Ibn ‘Arabî’s fascinating responses to Tirmidhi’s questionnaire. [29], This opening section contains chapters of very different lengths introducing, often in abbreviated and initially mysterious form, all the major themes found throughout the rest of the book. His place of burial there has been a famous pilgrimage site since Ottoman times. Anyone wishing to keep up with translations and studies of Ibn ‘Arabî, and more particularly with the dramatic unfolding of worldwide academic research into his profound influences in all aspects of later Islamic religion and the Islamic humanities, should refer to past and present issues of the Journal of the Muhyiddîn Ibn ‘Arabî Society (Oxford, now in its third decade). This is the Introduction to The Meccan Revelations by Michel Chodkiewicz, William Chittick and James Morris, published in 2002 by Pir Publications Inc., New York. He describes those experiences in a famous passage at the beginning of the book, which has been translated and discussed by each of his recent biographers. [21] This is often clearly the case in the longer selections from the Futuhat translated in W. Chittick’s The Self-Disclosure of God (see “Further Readings”), which are long enough for their dimensions of realization to become evident, especially in the many discussions of the “imaginal world” (barzakh) in the concluding chapter. THE MECCAN REVELATIONS (Part-I & II) – Selected Texts of al-Futuhat al-Makkiya. What makes this volume of selections from The Meccan Revelations still the best available introduction to Ibn ‘Arabî’s work is precisely the fact that most selections here are intentionally taken from passages that are directly connected with “the language of the soul” and its familiar, immediately apparent realm of experience and transformation: i.e., the Sufi language of spiritual states, stations and inspirations; and the rich spiritual symbolism of Islamic eschatology (as that was developed through earlier centuries of Sufi writers and mystics). 63 – 77. An exellent translation of the Futhat al-mekkiyya or the 'Meccan Revelations' written by probably the most influential Sufi in Islamic history. They influenced the "Spiritual Writings" of the emir Abd el-Kader, who published the book in 1857, and perhaps Dante.[7]. Eventually, as each reader becomes more familiar with the actual existential referents – the “realities” (haqâ’iq) – underlying Ibn ‘Arabî’s ontological and cosmological discussions, it will become clear that those discussions are also equally phenomenological descriptions of the stages and settings of the larger process of realization. Ample treatment is given to illustrations of the autobiographical dimensions of the Futûhât, its elaborate phenomenology of spiritual experience and realization, and its constant reference to the inspiration of the equally indispensable metaphysical and practical dimensions of Islamic revelation. In either of these key cases, modern-day presuppositions (shared by Muslim and non-Muslim readers alike) are likely to suggest diametrically opposite meanings to readers who have not studied the corresponding notes of explanation or otherwise assimilated Ibn ‘Arabî’s technical terminology. Volume II contains more of the "Greatest Shaykh's" wisdom for the first time in English. The following six sections of The Meccan Revelations, with a total of 560 chapters, are preceded not only by Ibn ‘Arabî’s Introduction and Table of Contents, as already mentioned, but also by two more poetic and highly symbolic shorter passages: Ibn ‘Arabî’s “Opening Address” (khutbat al-kitâb), [28] which has been translated and studied in a number of places, and his introductory “Letter” (risâla) to his longtime Tunisian Sufi friend, al-Mahdawî, and other Sufi companions in Tunisia with whom he spent several fruitful months on his way toward Mecca. One of the best illustrations of the distinctiveness of Ibn ‘Arabî’s own style is a rapid comparison with any of the widespread apocryphal works attributed to him (e.g., the famous R. al-Ahadiyya, al-Shajara al-Ilâhiyya, or the later commentary on his K. al-Kunh, recently translated as “What the Seeker Needs”): see the discussion of various apocrypha in our three-part detailed discussion of “Ibn Arabî and His Interpreters,” in Journal of the American Oriental Society, 106 – 7 (1986 – 87). [9], The inspirations that gave rise to The Meccan Revelations – as its title suggests [10] – took place in the course of Ibn ‘Arabî’s first pilgrimage in 1202/598. On a more widely accessible level, M. Sells’s Stations of Desire: Love Elegies From Ibn ‘Arabî’ (Jerusalem, Ibis, 2000) should now replace R. Nicholson’s frequently cited versions (The Tarjuman al-Ashwaq: A Collection of Mystical Odes) as a superb introduction to the central poetic dimension of Ibn ‘Arabî’s work, which is of course quite evident in the “keynote” poems that introduce virtually every chapter of The Meccan Revelations. In this anthology: chapters 470 (“Toward Sainthood”, Chittick) and 558 (“Divine Names and Theophanies”, Chittick). Third, Ibn ‘Arabî’s usual procedure throughout The Meccan Revelations is to shift constantly between multiple registers and references to the terminology, structures and intellectual assumptions of a host of fields of traditional learning that are often unfamiliar to most modern readers. The 114 dense and often lengthy chapters of this section correspond, in inverse order, to the inner meanings of each Sura of the Qur’an, and each manzil is explicitly (albeit mysteriously) related as well to one or more of the spiritual “Realities” of Muhammad, Jesus and Moses. [12] A few of those features are mentioned in the following section, but the best discussion (still very allusive, and assuming a detailed knowledge of the Qur’an and hadith) is scattered throughout M. Chodkiewicz’s An Ocean Without Shore. – who played an important role in Ibn ‘Arabî’s own development, as well as in Sufism and popular Islamic spirituality more generally. Ibn Arabi - Selections from Futuhat Makkiyya (Meccan Revelations) (76p).pdf - Free download as PDF File (.pdf), Text File (.txt) or read online for free. The numerous photographs of the cities and sites where Ibn ‘Arabî lived, taught and prayed are especially helpful for anyone unfamiliar with these cultural centers of the Islamic world. (See also the more recent Spanish translation by V. Palleja cited above.). This is an English translation of the first volume of Ibn Arabi's famous book of al-futuhat al-makkiyya. Ibn 'Arabî's "Esotericism": The Problem of The profusion of notes are necessary here, as with any of Ibn ‘Arabî’s writings, for the following basic reasons. Ibn Arabi english. Read 2 reviews from the world's largest community for readers. [4] See Introduction, “Suggestions for Further Reading.”. For this is the True Knowing and the Veridical Saying, and there is no goal beyond It. [8] Particularly important were his lasting impact on and through later Islamic philosophy, spiritual poetry and music, and the universal spiritual practices associated with veneration of Prophet and saints, as well as specifically Sufi tariqas and their practices. Ibn Arabi is initiated into religious experience by a spiritual woman called Nizham, a young Iranian woman whose name means "Harmony". A particularly dramatic illustration from the original Sindbad volume, soon to be available in English, is Professor Denis Gril’s introduction, translation and commentary on selected key passages explaining the “science of letters” (‘ilm al-hurûf). Instead I have given it scattered throughout the chapters of this book, exhaustively and clearly explained – but in different places, as we’ve mentioned. Even in Ibn ‘Arabî’s day, very few individuals would have been seriously educated in more than one of these complexes of scholarship and learning. ‘The blind and the truly seeing are alike’ in Its regard: [27] It brings together things most far and most near, and conjoins the most high and most low.’And in his final version of The Meccan Revelations, completed shortly before his death, he set down this new “last word,” which adds one key explanation as to why the full understanding of his writing is so challenging: Now this was the credo of the elite among the people of God. [25]. The Meccan Revelations (introduction) (al-Futuhat al-Makkiyya Book 1) eBook: Arabi, Muhyiddin Ibn, Haj Yousef, Mohamed: Amazon.com.au: Kindle Store The essential guiding ideas are of course the same, but here they are expressed with a constant careful, vivid and enthralling attention to the “living” phenomenology and experiential roots – including, above all, a constant reference to the words and practices of Islamic revelation – underlying the typically ontological and metaphysical formulae of the Fusûs tradition. They are on the order of “orientations,” or existential possibilities, that each reader needs to be aware of in order to begin to make the indispensable connections between the Shaykh’s symbolic language and the universal, experiential realities (themselves in no way dependent on any particular set of beliefs or historical-cultural programming) to which those symbols correspond. Finally, and even more mysteriously, each chapter concludes with a long but highly enigmatic catalogue of the various spiritual gifts and insights that are “given” in connection with this divine encounter, often connected with particular details of the corresponding Sura. One of the major aids to be hoped for from a completion of the critical edition would be the full identification of all the other shorter works which Ibn ‘Arabî either inserted and adapted as part of The Meccan Revelations, or in some cases may have been extracted and circulated as separate treatises at a later date (either by himself or later students). [33] For the selections from chapters 366 (‘The Mahdi’s Helpers’) and 367 (Ibn ‘Arabî’s Mi’râj), see our more extensive commentary and analysis in “Ibn ‘Arabî’s ‘Esotericism’: The Problem of Spiritual Authority,” Studia Islamica, LXXI (1990), pp. [24] For He said (of al-Khadir): a servant among Our servants to whom We have brought Mercy from Us and to whom We have given Knowledge from what is with Us [18:65]. Although the title of this section initially (and no doubt intentionally) evokes the usual second half of Islamic books of hadith and fiqh (normally following the purely individual “acts of devotion,” ‘ibâdât), which deals with all of the ethical dimensions of social life (marriage, inheritance, proper behavior, trade, etc. C. Addas’s Quest for the Red Sulphur: The Life of Ibn ‘Arabî (Cambridge, Islamic Texts Society, 1993), ably translated into English, is a longer, slightly more academic introduction to the same subjects, giving greater detail on Ibn ‘Arabî’s own teachers and cultural roots in different fields of medieval Islamic scholarship. Ibn ‘Arabi and his Interpreters I – Four overviews, description of the following: Except His Face: The Political and Aesthetic Dimensions of Ibn Arabi’s Legacy (PDF), Ibn Arabi and His Interpreters — Introduction:Historical Contexts and Contemporary Perspectives (overview of 28 articles and reviews in this collection), Ibn Arabi and His Interpreters — Grouping I:Overviews, “Ibn Arabi and His Interpreters”, JAOS article 1986 (PDF) | Part 1 | Part 2 | Part 3 | Part 1 (HTML), Ibn Arabi and His Interpreters — Grouping II:Influences in the Pre-Modern Islamic World (all the following 7 articles in one PDF), Theophany or “Pantheism” – The Importance of Balyani’s Risalat al-Ahadiya, The Continuing Relevance of Qaysari’s Thought: Divine Imagination and the Foundation of Natural Spirituality, Review: La destinée de l’homme selon Avicenne: Le retour à Dieu (maad) et l’imagination by Jean Michot, Review: Kitab al-inbah ‘ala Tariq Allah de ‘Abdallah Badr al-Habashi, Review: La Risala de Safi al-Din ibn Abi l-Mansur ibn Zafir, Review: Manjhan, Madhumalati: An Indian Sufi Romance, Review: Mirror of the Intellect: Essays on Traditional Science and Sacred Art, Ibn Arabi and His Interpreters — Grouping III:Later Muslim Critics and Polemics (all the following 4 articles in one PDF), An Arab “Machiavelli”? The Meccan Revelations (Arabic: كِتَابُ الفُتُوحَاتِ المَكِّيَّة‎, romanized: Kitâb Al-Futūḥāt al-Makkiyya) is the major work of the philosopher and Sufi Ibn Arabi, written between 1203 and 1240. [HERE: pages 1-42] [= A commentary on the fundamental issues raised in Chapter 366 of the Futūhāt, with new translations from throughout the Futūhāt.] That ultimate human goal of “immediate knowing” (‘ilm; or of ‘aql, “divine intelligence”), as Ibn ‘Arabî never ceases to remind us, is always a divine gift, the combined outcome of our spiritual intention, preceding experience and very limited efforts of divine “service” (‘ibâda) with the much larger intangible mysteries of grace, destiny and each soul’s intrinsic “preparedness” (isti’dâd) and spiritual maturity. Perhaps the most emblematic illustration of this infinitely variegated historical process was Ibn ‘Arabî’s direct inspiration (largely based on chapter 371 of The Meccan Revelations and related eschatological interpretations scattered throughout the work) for the form and detailed structures and layout of the Taj Mahal: see W. Begley, “The Myth of the Taj Mahal and a New Theory of Its Symbolic Meaning,” in The Art Bulletin, LXI:1 (March 1979). What is often “abstract” or schematic in the highly compressed language of the Bezels of Wisdom is expressed here with a profusion of immediate, compelling experiential illustrations: from Ibn ‘Arabî’s own spiritual life, the experiences of his friends and associates, of earlier Sufis, and the Prophet and Companions. Ibn Arabi: Spiritual Practice and Other Translations – Overview of the ten following articles: Introducing Ibn Arabi’s “Book of Spiritual Advice” (PDF), “Book of the Quintessence of What is Indispensable for the Spiritual Seeker” (PDF), Ibn Arabi on the Barzakh – Chapter 63 of the Futuhat (PDF), The Spiritual Ascension: Ibn Arabi and the miraj – Chapter 367 of the Futuhat (PDF), The Mahdi and His Helpers – Chapter 366 of the Futuhat (PDF), Ibn Arabi’s ‘Esotericism’: The Problem of Spiritual Authority (PDF), Communication and Spiritual Pedagogy: Methods of Investigation (tahqiq) (PDF), Rhetoric & Realisation in Ibn Arabi: How Can We Communicate Meanings Today? Moreover, all of his “books” discussed here existed only in a handful of manuscript copies, left behind in the Maghreb or restricted to the assiduous students and future transmitters of his teachings during his final years in Damascus. As in much of the Futuhat and his other writings, what he tries to do here can appear as a sort “ontological commentary” on the vast earlier literature and practical traditions of Sufi spiritual commentary, which he usually assumes to be quite familiar to his readers. James W. Morris (Boston College) has taught and published widely on Islamic and religious studies over the past 40 years at the Universities of Exeter, Princeton, Oberlin, and the Institute of Ismaili Studies in Paris and London, serving recently as visiting professor in Istanbul, Paris, and Jogjakarta. Looking for books by Ibn Arabi? [23] These key passages of Ibn ‘Arabî’s muqaddima are extracted from our longer overview and more extensive translations from this key opening section: “How to Study the Futuhat: Ibn ‘Arabî’s Own Advice,” in Muhyiddîn Ibn ‘Arabî: A Commemorative Volume (see note 36 below), pages 73 – 89. [8], The hypothesis of Ibn Arabi's influence on Dante comes from, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Meccan_Revelations&oldid=985226212, Wikipedia articles with TDVİA identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WorldCat-VIAF identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 24 October 2020, at 18:31. The seventy-eight chapters of this section are truly “Illuminations,” complex series of reflections and flashes of insight (“commentary” is far too pedestrian a term!) A more demanding, but absolutely fundamental and groundbreaking work on Ibn ‘Arabî’s understanding of “Sainthood” (walâya) – a study that has become indispensable for understanding the spiritual and conceptual underpinnings of this central feature of popular Islamic devotion and piety in every corner of the Islamic world, even today – is M. Chodkiewicz’s The Seal of the Saints: Prophethood and Sainthood in the doctrine of Ibn ‘Arabî (Cambridge, Islamic Texts Society, 1993), ably translated but still to be studied in the original if at all possible. There is every indication that the architectonic structure and detailed outline of the 560 chapters of The Meccan Revelations, which is given in full detail (sixty-two pages in the new critical edition) in the elaborate Table of Contents (fihris) that precedes Ibn ‘Arabî’s Introduction, dates from the initial inspiration of this book during the author’s first hajj in 1202/598. He arrived in Mecca in 1202, where he spent three years. [5] See the basic reference in this area, O. Yahia’s two-volume Histoire et classification de l’oeuvre d’Ibn ‘Arabî (Damascus, I. F. D., 1964), which has been supplemented and corrected by several of the recent studies cited in the “Further Reading” section. One could readily apply to both of these remarkable works what Ibn ‘Arabî says of The Meccan Revelations and his ideal readers in his Introduction, quoted above: the “preparedness” such works require is not simply, or even essentially, academic. See, among others, the voluminous anthology of related texts from many key figures in the later Islamic humanities (though the subtitle might suggest something quite different) included in S. Murata’s The Tao of Islam: A Sourcebook on Gender Relationships in Islamic Thought (Albany, SUNY, 1992); the four-volume version of later Turkish commentaries on the Fusûs, translated as Ismail Hakki Bursevi’s translation of and commentary on Fusûs al-Hikam’ (Oxford, MIAS, 1986); and perhaps most fascinating, S. Murata’s recent far-reaching study of several Neo-Confucian Chinese Muslim thinkers profoundly influenced by Ibn ‘Arabî, Chinese Gleams of Sufi Light’(Albany, SUNY, 2000). [33] In this anthology: chapters 302, 351, 369 (“Lesser and Greater Resurrection”, Morris); 366 (“At the End of Time”, Morris); 367 (“Ibn ‘Arabî’s Spiritual Ascension”, Morris); 311 and 372 (“Towards Sainthood”, Chittick). – (forms of spiritual) knowing that are concealed from every theologian on the face of the earth, and indeed from anyone relying on (purely intellectual) inquiry and proofs, but who lacks that spiritual state. [4] Here it may suffice to recall that he was born in present-day Murcia, in Andalusia, in 1165/560; was raised in the great cultural centers of Islamic Spain, where his extraordinary spiritual gifts were already apparent by his adolescence; traveled and encountered innumerable spiritual teachers and “Friends of God” throughout Spain and North Africa in his youth; and left that area definitively for the Hajj, which brought him to Mecca – and the incidents that gave rise to The Meccan Revelations – in 1202/598. 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