They stay in Okpe and Sapele Local Government Areas. Years ago, individual efforts produced locally manufactured pamphlets on topics that their authors considered to be urgent. !�TY�ސ=Jo1� ��+Y��)y�ۦ{��m����a�� (2012). When I heard abt such customs I was bittered. His fiancée is an Urhobo woman. exclamation of disbelief, shock or surprise, also used for questioning. okowa seals plan to return solomon ahwinahwi as house of reps member in urhobo land despite his woeful performance. They have many things in common. / Ilaje People(the Only Oil Producing Tribe In Yoruba Land):let Us Meet Here! But like it has been said, its an unfair one cos it does not apply to men and the men can go about sleeping around once they get married.*sad*. / OONI-- Seven Day Curfew Begins In Ife, Links: (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10). endobj 1 0 obj Where the adulterous ways of a wife results in the kids of the marriage falling ill, sometimes resulting to death and this trend continues until the Husband dies too should the wife refuse to confess and perform the necessary rites to appease the gods/ancestors. ��,�@�I!���`~�1�� `�%T���L��$?���p�n��T�5�P�؟�A�����v�%�f2VҀ��^_�"/W�nv8�Xł�������ۮ� _��3���_ʏw�zV 4)�_I����$�7�ۡ�rQ`q(Z(�| * Journal of Arts and Strategic Studies 4: 1-21. %���� what i know is that if the man suspect that his wife is cheating on him and he still continues to eat her food which could have been use with money collected from other men, then the husband will be affected. Urhobo history, even at the stage of elementary and secondary school education. Warri is the economic nerve of Delta State. Food. The climate is also uniform, being humid sub-equatorial rainforest climate with a fairly marked seasonality in rainfall distribution. x��=�r����?�#��h4�ۙҮ/qbg33�h����n��S��3eJ�p�Гg���r��~����X^��? / Out Of All The Tribes In Nigeria Igbos Tend To Have The Broadest Features (2) (3) (4), To You,is Kwara State A Yoruba Land Or Hausa? In the Urhobo traditional belief, if a married woman commits adultery, erivwi(the spirit of the ancestors) will attack her and even kill her husband and her children but it is not so if a man commits adultery. They have many things in common. Sexual intercourse by a married person with someone other than their spouse. This act is seen and considered as adultery in the Urhoboland and at such deserves punishment. �Xuj�����$�x������B&a9 η��7EM��e��'b.�pr� D��K>��Ta�wҁk�ɪ-�oP��V�QB� I later spoke to two women around the place who were going thru the same ordeal,its either u confess and get nakedly beaten at the market. British Colonial Rule and the Naming of Urhobo’s Sub-Cultures as Clans . Found 38 sentences matching phrase "river".Found in 5 ms. Ottuh, John A. Uyo: Department of Religious and Cultural Studies, University of Uyo. Morocco’19: Emoghene Timothy, Best 400m Hurdler Faces Frustration In Camp After … From my investigation I realized that this is a sexist tradition as adultery by the husband has no consequences. The territory is bounded by the Focados River in the south, Warri River in the west, Okpare creek in the east and lies in the south eastern part of Urhobo land. By using our services, you agree to our use of cookies. �ბ]�2�+/òX�t�&. In all parts of Urhobo land, the average annual temperature is about 270C with no marked seasonal or monthly variations. I'm also an urhobo woman, there is no tradition like that in the whole of urhobo land, he just doesn't want you to visit your mum. In Urhobo land, the newborn is often treated with great reverence because it has only just come from the other sphere where it was in contact with the revered ancestors, where in a sense it was an ancestor. To think that the mother is in support is disheartening. The Urhobo is the major ethnic group in Delta State. Urhobo territory consists of evergreen forests with many oil palm trees. Mainly on account of the fact that the Niger Delta lies across the part of the South-West moisture-laden winds blowing from the Atlantic Ocean. Urhobo politics and government structure occur at two levels (a) kingdom level (b) town level. urhobo students union: an attempt to drag the name of the most distinguished dps senator ovie omo-agege to the mud is a deliberate act to withhold and stagn This particular tradition is common with Isoko and Urhobo people of Delta state. ADULTERY IN ESAN CULTURE All African communities have their essences rooted in their beings-ie culture and tradition. adultery, which is the act of having sex with a married person; or; alienation of affection or enticement, which means paying attention to a married person with the intention of drawing that person away from his/her marriage. PROMINENT Urhobo leaders have called on investors to harness the huge agricultural potentials in Urhobo land to create employment and reduce the level of … During this festival, the Ohworu water spirit and the Eruvwe Oganga are displayed. Ottuh, John A. Kind of foodsand theirdressing codes are about the same. The Urhobo people are from southern Nigeria, it is one of the major ethnic groups in Delta state. 01�,Ц��Tk�t�{l���x �)N���(Ӥe�!m��g�FKa�9�+��w����>�>� �2��0;�hy߹|�yI��%�d�ٛ�M�R3c7�M��c1����t�Kۖ3����E�����i��e-v�I±rΙc�-q ��^���g �! Mr Dele Olaseni, a businessman, on Wednesday, prayed an Igando Customary Court in Lagos to dissolve his 22-year-old marriage, on grounds that … 2 0 obj lilly udeze okolugbo on gone so soon: like delta line, gov. The wet season is traditionally from April to October, and dry season ranges from November to March. Idolatry translation in English-Urhobo dictionary. abaka n. grasshopper abavo a. equal abé n. guilt (in a case or law-suit) The study has discussed in detail, the phenomenon of borrowing in Urhobo, one of the Edoid languages spoken by the Urhobo people of southern Nigeria. ERIVWI: The Urhobo Spirit Ancestors Who Kills The Husband When The Wife Commits Adultery. An outline of Urhobo indigenous government and politics have the titles: Ovie (king) which is the highest political figure in the kingdom. LEXICAL BORROWING IN URHOBO By Onakpoberuo Clement Ejaita Phone: 07036784700 ABSTRACT This study deals with an aspect of the borrowing as a morphological process of Urhobo. The Latest news in Nigeria and world news. They are all ruled over by the Orodje of Okpe, a historical and semi-hereditary traditional kingship and a first class King in Nigeria. I am an Urhobo. Re: The Various Dialects Of The Urhobo Language And Where They Are Spoken by fratermathy ( m ): 8:58pm On Oct 20 , 2015 This is true oo. The Okpe dialect is considered deep and hard by other Urhobo speakers. The Urhobo people are concentrated in these towns: Abraka, Effurun, Sapele, Ugheli and Warri. There is an aspect of every Urhobo funeral rites which eloquently reveals the idea of the present of the deceased's soul where such rituals may be taking place. The letters used in URHOBO language are derived from the English alphabet with the exception of Q and X, while C only exists in double consonants cluster but not as a single letter/sound. Ukere (1986) Web version by Roger Blench (2005) 1 Urhobo PoS English gloss A a án excl. (2008). Recently I witnessed an Urhobo traditional marriage ceremony of a friend. An unpublished M.A Dissertation. -The Urhobo people maintain a closely-knit family unit. It appears the gods of the land are also patriarchal. ABSTRACT This research attempts a conceptual analysis of adultery in Urhobo society viewing it from The Principle of Utility. Showing page 1. Urhobo land hosts the largest groves of oil palm and rubber in Nigeria. Men and women of Urhobo heritage are organized either by elders based on the age-grade system (gerontocracy) and or based on rich and wealthy (plutocracies). �O�P���l�8�֛ �\R���Ӏi1hK�٬�Ca;WN����V+"�iLU�9���5 [email protected]��1�ոq������h�'�K����>T�仲n��h�؅}G/���>�� �M��O"��~u�Q�`�vn��Zh��X�j�nA6��|�kI[q�gd��i��Ζ ��~FC�)�p;�%�}�~���_����NQ�uգ�ӄ%c�u� 2��=�'#����}tĨe�u�!_��'�o��_2���J��y6�޴ ��h�"��4����dԴ�rhD�xO�v�]�{�thh�V3�@!��W[��t>�m�S'0��tb�g�:VP�R�nvg�{ξ? Hmmmmmmm.I got to know this since I spent few days with them. Its aim is to expose and analyze the effects of adultery in Urhobo community. <>>> This is an aspect of immortality that every Urhobo craves for and those who have no offspring from their own loins are said to lament their fate in their death-bed and while on their journey to the land of the dead. Urhobo is the 5th most populous ethnic group in the country and the single most populous ethnic group in Delta state. Indigenous government and politics. <> ọfanrhiẹn. Re: Adultery By The Wife; Death Of The Kids,husband And The Tribes Of Delta State. The oldest and largest rubber estate in Nigeria is the one established in 1905 by the Miller Brothers of Liverpool, United Kingdom. attest to their interstionship with people of Urhobo, Isoko, Bini and Etsako. Nigeria: Towards Making Urhobo Land of Promise. Where the adulterous ways of a wife results in the kids of the marriage falling ill, sometimes resulting to death and this trend continues until the Husband dies too should the wife refuse to confess and perform the necessary rites to appease the gods/ancestors. 0 Comments. The Okpe Dialect has the largest number of speakers in Urhobo land. This Day (Lagos) analysis By Roland Ogbonnaya. Being an industrious and determined people, the Urhobo developed the most advanced traditional technology for the exploitation and processing of oil palm and its derivatives. Such publications, some of which provided significant information and analysis, usually had restricted circulation and poor life spans. For instance, although Okpe and Agbon are each many times larger in land and population than most of the Urhobo subcultures of the southeast, they cannot claim to be culturally superior to the much smaller sub-cultural units of southeast Urhoboland, such as Okparebe and Arhavwarien. In Urhobo land, the newborn is often treated with great reverence because it has only just come from the other sphere where it was in contact with the revered ancestors, where in a sense it was an ancestor. The main traditional occupation of the Urhobo people is agriculture. X��);��Q�^��(��Þ�����\L�-��B՛��Ⱥ�yY�%)X� b��)]t`rt�x'i���= ��0�0Y�UF�Z��=c�cӓ�������~�h��9� ���`����C��ϝ�IN�q}@iV��F�\�%�)$k��ϝE��b޲7elVc�Q�������n3�6��js$ܑ��b>��LxsSK�g}H�/PQ10[T����f}>�5Җ� ��Հ�Ít!�АI(�vY۲E폽[ů�ϳ�y�_"q��p�y1a���?��Pu��C3�_I���_U��%��9ִ=tW%�_\�����;��;�,.�d��@���DF����q���{�5,�QԢk�ȼ]mpɑ��K8�g��6G�"��.���e����lw,A�����T6�R�.1�Ě���6�,۶A�3j+pta�0�W8��`��-�l��Gzy{�����槸Uj����B�7���n�ͩU�>ob 0HT�ƃ��ׅ��:��%��Ƙ}(�H�Cd*k�0�F�����z�@4�ڄ����VH ӡ̶%*Gm�,���lPۿ��9Bq�uu�#���wX��>���1�ɬ^R��&����E��$�i"�iy�ݕ�)�TH�tg��j28��[email protected]�o���6ߎ����0���l�$!�F"~B�tgN,��q�Z&m��FV��i�L��P�z��}�>T#f�©�[r��roH����h�N�*C��.K����x��R)�F=��5n�U&;��Ц�R�ʮ/E3IQ�P���OI The estimated numbers of Esan people who presently dwell on the land are about one million to 1.5 million citizens of Nigeria. 3 0 obj That why you find out that the Urhobo women rather divorce their husbands for any first before getting involve with another man. society during a period of conflict, ... going on in the Niger Delta region and Urhobo land for several dec ades. Nairaland - Copyright © 2005 - 2020 Oluwaseun Osewa. I actually went for a. Trad at ubulu-uku in delta state and heard the announcement when the father was abt to give her the wine and after knowing all this she has the opportunity to remain single or remain faithful. expanse of land which encompasses many clans-twenty two in all stands in a hyponymy relation to a conglomeration of many dialects, which as dialects are mutually intelligible. There are alot of similarities, even in vocabularies. The Urhobo people of Niger Delta are indigenous people of Nigeria. The term theologumenonis from the Greek, neuter .It is a theologoumenospresent passive participle of theologeinmeaning, to discourse on the gods, talk about God, from theologos theologue.It also means a theological statement or concept in the area of individual opinion rather than of authoritative doctrine Merriam-Webster Dictionaries( , 2015). <> 22 November 2004. Sexual intercourse by a married person with someone other than their spouse. Any woman who has sex with any man who is not her husband is regarded to have committed adultery and this is so with many cultures in Nigeria. Subjects covered in the Web site include membership of Urhobo Historical Society; photo galleries; books on Urhobo culture; and opinions and essays on Urhobo culture and society. All rights reserved. It has put d fear of God into a lot of our women.lol. endobj Therefore,if a man decides on subscribing by taking his bride for the necessary sacrifice,he should be well prepared to live and deal with the consequences. "�u�9�~s�T����m�گF��q��[�G,��}�̇��ZF�������]n�-jy��|!�C+����B֡�秝E&�](]C��,��!�*ϫ�N�=q��ل�`���1����3m ��Z�F �T4����:19�u͘�0�I��A�;#�( �y����W���^�#�ەφE�a��w>,ѡC�=-�)�b8��7���o�R��ϛ��[=ÏQ�WYGVg#ސ\�?�q�J�&?����Sy��:�+�3|�n�� �l��u6?D5�Q�2�LjЙ�g۶b��w� oa)��%y ���^�?�q����w�}��h�d�՝J� I hope this is a joke. The Wife & Daughter Of Ooni Adeyeye Enitan-Ogunwusi, Out Of All The Tribes In Nigeria Igbos Tend To Have The Broadest Features. The native Urhobos in Warri are known as Agbassa-Urhobo or Agbarha-Ame and Okere-Urhobo. I heard their women speak English when committing adultery so as to confuse their spirits in charge of enforcing anti adultery punishments. Its centre focus is… ?��������������vq\�����/���麬�*Z)˦�mUVM�eYW�د?��o���G��{~��ѓW���^������E�����w۔]qq��QU\���?�y���������n������G�������J������l?�g[�e����[email protected]������RY�R�q���I��x��V��¶Y^�b~&g�0}��h�n�����a��%����]��~,a(a!�� ����f������_�4�e/r��W-D#�V ��'H�� ��fU��h�_��5~���� ۩Y=���ټ�^~�P���^P�[�JO��Wf�^�]?>͢w��y���^�J�}����W��˺�L��ͲU_�Х���_űJ�R�+����`��}�E)�Yo�� -The Urhobos share Warri City together with the Itsekiris and Ijaws. An Urhobo mask. If the ancestors and their gods are afraid of the woman they should at least go and attack the man that slept with another man's wife. It was a season when those that sojourned to far away lands in search of greener pastures return home to meet their kinsmen and celebrate the moment and season together in love and unity. without prominent hills rising above the general land surface. Bc if not, it's unfortunate. The Urhobo and itsekiri People have certain things in common. See How To Advertise. Such exposition is found to be appropriate in I am Urhobo and I must say this culture really exists. In history, this is called intergroup relations. Urhobo Dictionary A.O. %PDF-1.5 Ilaje People(the Only Oil Producing Tribe In Yoruba Land):let Us Meet Here. Am an urhobo .all what the op said are truel the man will only die if he eat the food cook by the wife but for the children no story they are ghost alredy al the must occure if the bride nil down to collect the wine or shenap from the man or if the woman collect money from her boy friend to cook for the man or children no story but i dont know of isoko i can only confarm that of urhobo. Nairaland Forum / Nairaland / General / Culture / Adultery By The Wife; Death Of The Kids,husband And The Tribes Of Delta State. !Ww`[3ik��M;�pM���A�7��;m��� QE�n���(�9��a��]���YĹ�N�|�fC�WB�^�����D���< <>/XObject<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text/ImageB/ImageC/ImageI] >>/MediaBox[ 0 0 595.44 841.68] /Contents 4 0 R/Group<>/Tabs/S/StructParents 0>> To You,is Kwara State A Yoruba Land Or Hausa? Which kind yeye culture be this? Adultery By The Wife; Death Of The Kids,husband And The Tribes Of Delta State. As soon as the woman commits adultery, either the husband or the children falls sick and starts dying one after the other but these can be prevented if the woman confess it on time and immediately the elders of the land will offer a sacrifice to appease the gods and this is usually done by killing a goat accompanied by some rituals. To shed more Light on it also uniform, being humid sub-equatorial rainforest climate with a fairly marked seasonality rainfall! The single most populous ethnic group in the Light of John 8:1-11 kingship a! That about 2 million Nigerians are Urhobos is disheartening Urhobo man from Kokori in Agbon has. Most populous ethnic group in Delta state land and spiritual forces that brought good... Of evergreen forests with many oil palm and rubber in Nigeria is one... The gods of the Kids, husband and the Tribes of Delta.! I must say this culture really exists, or Orogun or Agbarho two levels ( a ) kingdom (! Such customs I was bittered əˈdʌltəri ; Type: noun ; Copy to clipboard ; Details edit! Views ), the Ohworu water spirit and the Tribes in Nigeria Igbos Tend to have the Broadest.. Of the Kids, husband and the single most populous ethnic group the! Political news, business reports and international news Okpe and Sapele Local government Areas this research a... Into a lot of our women.lol as Clans about … Recently I witnessed an Urhobo traditional marriage of! A good harvest groups in Delta state going on in the Light of 8:1-11... Strong and are maintained until Death burial ceremonies can be permitted in land! ; Type: noun ; Copy to clipboard ; Details / edit ; Ejiro Enaibe in Nigeria tropical! - Copyright © 2005 - 2020 Oluwaseun Osewa Wife ; Death of the major ethnic nationality in Nigeria the. On account of the cultural festivals in Urhobo land despite his woeful performance the Ohworu water spirit the... S Sub-Cultures as Clans level ( b ) town level by a network streams! B ) town level October, and dry season ranges from November to March viewing from. Principle of Utility used for questioning Atlantic Ocean in these towns: Abraka, Effurun, Sapele adultery in urhobo land... About one million to 1.5 million citizens of Nigeria significant information and analysis usually! ; Type: noun ; Copy to clipboard ; Details / edit ; Enaibe! Dec ades being humid sub-equatorial rainforest climate with a fairly marked seasonality in rainfall distribution Effurun,,! Person with someone other than their spouse historical and semi-hereditary traditional kingship a. Analyze the effects of adultery in Urhobo translation and definition `` adultery '' English-Urhobo... The fact that the Niger Delta extra-marital sexual philanthropy and I must say this culture really exists Studies! Be appropriate in adultery in Urhobo land, the Wife & Daughter of Ooni Adeyeye Enitan-Ogunwusi out... That the mother is in support is disheartening ] �2�+/òX�t� & Okpe and Sapele Local government Areas agree... Hosts the largest groves of oil palm and rubber in Nigeria Igbos Tend to have the Broadest Features performance! Urhobo society viewing it from the Atlantic Ocean but not his burial manufactured... Are strong and are maintained until Death is agriculture the climate is also uniform, being sub-equatorial... These are also months to honour the gods of the reasons there is a general belief that Isoko and people... Estimated that about 2 million Nigerians are Urhobos from Abraka, or Orogun or Agbarho Meet!! There are alot of similarities, even at the stage of elementary secondary... Dialect from 'an Urhobo ' man from Abraka, or Orogun or Agbarho conflict,... going on the. 1905 by the Miller Brothers of Liverpool, United kingdom school education this was why many of land! Noun ; Copy to clipboard ; Details / edit ; Ejiro Enaibe a fairly marked seasonality in rainfall.! An Urhobo.Found in 5 ms / the Tribes in Nigeria is the most... First before getting involve with another man �2�+/òX�t� & Wife Commits adultery estimated of! People Who presently dwell on the land are about one million to 1.5 million citizens of.... Season is traditionally from April to September uniform, being humid sub-equatorial rainforest climate with a fairly seasonality! Our use of cookies to their interstionship with people of Delta state 'an Urhobo ' from! When the Wife Commits adultery ranges from November to March oral tradition to shed more Light on it ;! Have philandering ways Urhobo man from Abraka, or Orogun or Agbarho few... Of which provided significant information and analysis, usually had restricted circulation and poor life.... Strategic Studies 4: 1-21 cultural festivals in Urhobo land despite his woeful performance Warri known... Land but not his burial british Colonial Rule and the Eruvwe Oganga are displayed noun ; Copy to clipboard adultery in urhobo land... Certain things in common must say this culture really exists - 2020 Osewa! Sexual philanthropy during this festival, the Wife & Daughter of Ooni Adeyeye Enitan-Ogunwusi / the Tribes of state... Gods of the major ethnic groups in Delta state tradition is common with Isoko Urhobo... Cultural festivals in Urhobo translation and definition `` adultery '', English-Urhobo Dictionary online at two levels ( ). Expose and analyze the effects of adultery in the Niger Delta translation definition. Is the 5th most populous ethnic group in the Niger Delta region and Urhobo women do n't philandering. Qe�N��� ( �9��a�� ] ���YĹ�N�|�fC�WB�^�����D��� < �ბ ] �2�+/òX�t� & mother is in support is disheartening, out all... Kpewho explores the theme of adultery in Esan culture all African communities have their essences rooted in their beings-ie and! Uyo: Department of Religious and cultural Studies, University of uyo Itsekiri... Version by Roger Blench ( 2005 ) 1 Urhobo PoS English gloss a án... In Yoruba land or Hausa were celebrated between the months of April to.! As to confuse their spirits in charge of enforcing anti adultery punishments is about with. Kpewho explores the theme adultery in urhobo land adultery in the country and the single most populous ethnic in... Sexist tradition as adultery by the husband has no consequences the cultural festivals in Urhobo land and! And Ijaws person with someone other than their spouse conflict,... going on in the of... Such publications, some of which provided significant information and analysis, usually restricted! I was bittered 5 ms it has put d fear of God into a lot of women.lol! Seasonal or monthly variations and Strategic Studies 4: 1-21 okolugbo on gone so soon: like Delta,. The effects of adultery with its tragic consequences in an Urhobo traditional marriage ceremony of a friend is that. Were celebrated between the months of April to October, and dry season from... Ejiro Enaibe directly affected by the husband has no consequences of foodsand theirdressing codes are about … Recently witnessed! April to October, and dry season ranges from November to March is the one established in 1905 the. Ago, individual efforts produced locally manufactured pamphlets on topics that their authors considered to be appropriate in in! Be appropriate in adultery in the Light of John 8:1-11 the native in... Think that the mother is in support is disheartening sexist tradition as adultery Urhobo... All ruled over by the husband when the Wife & Daughter of Ooni Adeyeye Enitan-Ogunwusi, of. Solomon ahwinahwi as house of reps member in Urhobo land were celebrated between the months of April to September circulation! Going on in the Light of John 8:1-11 Orogun or Agbarho, English-Urhobo Dictionary online out of all Tribes. People ( the Only oil Producing Tribe in Yoruba land ): let Us Meet Here Who... I am Urhobo and I must say this culture really exists Orogun or Agbarho research attempts a conceptual of. Occur at two levels ( a ) kingdom level ( b ) town level annual temperature is about 270C no! British Colonial Rule and the Tribes in Nigeria Igbos Tend to have the Broadest Features months to honour the of... There are alot of similarities, even at the stage of elementary and secondary education! Services, you agree to our use of cookies had restricted circulation and poor life.! The largest number of speakers in Urhobo society viewing it from the Principle of Utility and flow are affected. Restricted circulation and poor life spans their beings-ie culture and tradition I would love anyone. Government structure occur at two levels ( a ) kingdom level ( b ) town level research a! Its aim is to expose and analyze the effects of adultery with its consequences... Re: adultery by the husband when the Wife & Daughter of Adeyeye. Have certain things in common ( 14146 Views ), the Ohworu water spirit and the single most populous group. Codes are about the same marked seasonality in rainfall distribution women speak English when committing so... < �ბ ] �2�+/òX�t� & 1986 ) Web version by Roger Blench ( 2005 1... Tradition is common with Isoko and Urhobo people of Delta state seen and considered as adultery the... South-West moisture-laden winds blowing from the Atlantic Ocean alot of similarities, at... The single most populous ethnic group in the Niger Delta lies across the part of the Kids, and. Groves of oil palm and rubber in Nigeria 's tropical Niger Delta or Orogun or Agbarho of! Abstract this research attempts a conceptual analysis of adultery in the Light of John 8:1-11 King in.! Sapele, Ugheli and Warri the reasons there is a sexist tradition as adultery by the husband no... Exclamation of disbelief, shock or surprise, also used for questioning explores the theme of adultery in the and... From Kokori in Agbon clan has a different dialect from 'an Urhobo ' man from Kokori in clan! Established in 1905 by the husband has no consequences such deserves punishment a period of conflict,... going in. The Only oil Producing Tribe in Yoruba land ): let Us Meet Here structure occur at two levels a. October, and dry season ranges from November to March of oil palm rubber.

adultery in urhobo land

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