Wesley recounted that "I felt my heart strangely warmed. Gilbert Tennent also came up from New Jersey and preached with great emotional fervor throughout southern Massachusetts and Connecticut. [65], The major figures of the Great Awakening, such as George Whitefield, Jonathan Edwards, Gilbert Tennent, Jonathan Dickinson and Samuel Davies, were moderate evangelicals who preached a pietistic form of Calvinism heavily influenced by the Puritan tradition, which held that religion was not only an intellectual exercise but also had to be felt and experienced in the heart. Tennent was in part responsible for t… Gilbert Tennent preached a sermon that warned of a deadly danger. [25] Wesley was at first uneasy about preaching outdoors as it was contrary to his high-church sense of decency. ", Coalter, Milton J. [81][page needed] A deep sense of religious enthusiasm encouraged women, especially to analyze their feelings, share them with other women, and write about them. He also ordered the burning of books by religious authors such as John Flavel and Increase Mather. from the University of Edinburgh in 1693. [98] Historians have debated whether the Awakening had a political impact on the American Revolution which took place soon after. [60] In 1754, the efforts of Eleazar Wheelock led to what would become Dartmouth College, originally established to train Native American boys for missionary work among their own people. He then spent time in New Haven, Connecticut, where he preached at Yale University. His first stop was in Philadelphia where he initially preached at Christ Church, Philadelphia's Anglican church, and then preached to a large outdoor crowd from the courthouse steps. Gilbert Tennent (5 février 1703, County Armagh, Irlande; 23 juillet 1764, Philadelphie, Pennsylvanie, États-Unis) était un chef religieux. Sometimes revival would be initiated by regular preaching or the customary pulpit exchanges between two ministers. [16] His preaching attracted large crowds who were drawn to his simple message of the necessity of the new birth as well as by his manner of delivery. [17], John Wesley left for Georgia in October 1735 to become a missionary for the Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge. 1740–1766," in, Sprague (1858), "John Elder. Still, many leaders of the revivals proclaimed that slaveholders should educate their slaves so that they could become literate and be able to read and study the Bible. "[68] The reality of regeneration was discerned through self-examination, and while it occurred instantaneously, a convert might only gradually realize it had occurred. Besides Boston, Tennent preached in towns throughout Massachusetts, Rhode Island and Connecticut. It is estimated that between 20,000 and 50,000 new members were admitted to New England's Congregational churches even as expectations for members increased. [58][59] By 1758, the Old Side–New Side split in the Presbyterian Church had been healed and the two factions reunited. Numerically small before the outbreak of revival, Baptist churches experienced growth during the last half of the 18th century. [9], Whitefield joined the Holy Club in 1733 and, under the influence of Charles Wesley, read German pietist August Hermann Francke's Against the Fear of Man and Scottish theologian Henry Scougal's The Life of God in the Soul of Man (the latter work was a favorite of Puritans). Here’s that account: Tennent arrived in America from Ireland at the age of fourteen. The result was a split in the Presbyterian church. [11][12] All three men experienced a spiritual crisis in which they sought true conversion and assurance of faith. [5] Pietism emphasized heartfelt religious faith in reaction to an overly intellectual Protestant scholasticism perceived as spiritually dry. In the Southern colonies, the Anglican church was officially established, though there were significant numbers of Baptists, Quakers and Presbyterians. [9], The origins of revivalism in Scotland stretch back to the 1620s. Tennent’s contribution was his sermon titled The Danger of an Unconverted Ministry (1740). [49] Following the intervention of two pro-revival "New Light" ministers, Davenport's mental state apparently improved, and he published a retraction of his earlier excesses. [19], John Wesley returned to England in September 1738. . . However, following a deep illness, he … Soon after, he arrived in Boston and resumed his fanatical preaching only to once again be declared insane and expelled. The search for assurance required conscious effort on the part of a convert and took months or even years to achieve. [80], The Awakening played a major role in the lives of women, though they were rarely allowed to preach or take leadership roles. tennent, gilbert (1703–1764) Premier Presbyterian revivalist of the First Great Awakening, Tennent preached a three–step conversion adapted from the Dutch Reformed pietist Theodore Frelinghuysen. Because Calvinists believed in election and predestination, some thought it inappropriate to preach to strangers that they could repent and receive salvation. Gilbert Tennent was born in a Presbyterian Scots-Irish family in County Armagh, Ireland,[4] and raised in there, where he was home schooled by his father, William Tennent. The most important leader of the Awakening in central Europe was Nicolaus Zinzendorf, a Saxon noble who studied under pietist leader August Hermann Francke at Halle University. Then spent time in New England 's churches and clergy prior to intervention... His wife and four sons, Gilbert, William G. `` Essay Review: the colonies. 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